Saturday, November 30, 2013

Job Analysis

Blog 2: Job Analysis
In my next blog I will be talking about the benefits to job analysis. Describing what job analysis is, how job analysis should be applied in the business world. Mainly my focus comes from my sources talking about the different factors to job analysis. My sources talks about job analysis methods for human resource in the new millennium, the use of O*net Online website, industrial and commercial training, and lastly job analysis for the changing workforce.
Job analysis is a family of formal methods for describing jobs and human attributes necessary for jobs. Job analysis answer to major important questions: what do people on a particular job do (task oriented)? What human characteristics are necessary for a job (person oriented)? The Unit of analysis is the job not the individual. Also, it deals with tasks/requirements for all positions within a job classification or title rather than individual people’s jobs.
O*net program “is the nation’s primary source of occupational information” (O*net website). It is used to focus on different job occupations as well as different skills, and characteristics amongst many other thing a person must possess. “Central to the project is the O*NET database, containing information on hundreds of standardized and occupation-specific descriptors” (O*net website). O*net program provides the primary source of occupational information. “The database, which is available to the public at no cost, is continually updated by surveying a broad range of workers from each occupation” (O*net). This website allows career exploration, also for students and workers who are looking to find or change their careers. “The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) is being developed under the sponsorship of the US Department of Labor/Employment and Training Administration (USDOL/ETA) through a grant to the North Carolina Department of Commerce” (O*net website). O*net is very useful when trying to find what a certain occupation does, the necessary skills/training to have for this position. As well as education level, salary, and where will this job be at in the future.
“Job analysis may be viewed as the hub of virtually all human resource management activities necessary for the successful functioning of organizations” (Singh, Parbudyal). Human resource management need accurate and thorough job information. Job analysis makes up the effective activity in human resource. “Job analysis is focused on the collection of work-related information for the job as it currently exists and/or has existed in the past” (Singh, Parbudyal). With the increase in technology innovations jobs are becoming less static, and even less individually based. “Consequently, the tasks to be performed, and the knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) required for effective job performance are also becoming more volatile, and sometimes more team-based” (Singh, Parbudyal). “Job analysis has grown considerably in scope and applications, especially over the last few decades. By the 1950s, even though there seemed to be less academic publications than before, job analysis became an influential management tool in business and industry” (Singh, Parbudyal). Job analysis helps businesses focus on current jobs as well as foresee jobs in the future. “job analysis has provided an informational base for a wide variety of organizational and managerial functions, including among others, selection and staffing, training and development, performance appraisal, compensation and benefits, job descriptions and job design, and employment equity and affirmative action” (Singh, Parbudyal). These are just a glimpse as to what all job analysis can provide to an individual as well as to human resource management.
Frederick Oswald breaks down job analysis by indicating the different structures human resource must achieve to acquire that the person can do the given job duty. “Job analysis as a generic label for information-gathering methods whose critical considerations include the type of job and worker data collected, the sources of the data, the methods of gathering the data, and the level of substantive and measurement/analytic detail required” (Frederick, L. Oswald).  How job analysis can be determine if we look at the job side is by job descriptions, performance appraisals, job evaluation and job redesign, from the worker side is selection and training. These same terms will be mention throughout my paper. They are consider very important when applying job analysis to a company. Job analysis applies to managerial jobs also for team-based work (KSAs and team functions). “These specific applications…which reflect related general considerations concerning the scope and nature of information collected from both the job (e.g., Functional Job Analysis, critical incident technique, task analysis) and the worker (e.g., Job Element Method, PAQ, and cognitive task analysis)” (Frederick, L. Oswald). The author goes into another technique called the hybrid methods of information. Frederick, L. Oswald goes onto say that this method is appropriate to help understand both of these sides of job-analysis equation. The more information you know about the two methods and applications, you will increase your chances for any potential pitfalls in job analysis. “Job analysis takes place not only within organizational and research contexts, but within a legal context as well (e.g., ADA and EEOC requirements,), and it is both art and science to implement a competent job analysis that acknowledges and skillfully manages these contexts in light of all relevant parties' intents and purposes” (Frederick, L. Oswald). Sometimes work and worker characteristics can or well change over time with the risen of technology, job redesign, and organizational change. “O*NET occupational data base and, in general, about the future of job analysis in light of changes in society, technology, and the business environment” (Frederick, L. Oswald). O*net like I mention earlier helps determine where the job will be in the future.
There are many steps that can be taken to determine the job analysis of a job. How can human resource management examine from the work and worker stand point. What skills and attributes needs to acquire for this job as well as the level of performance needed for this job. Will this job be here in the next twenty years or should we redesign to better fit with the ever changing of technology.
Work Citied
Frederick, L. Oswald. "Job Analysis: Methods, Research, and Applications for Human Resource Management in the New Millennium." Personnel Psychology 56.3 (2003): 800-2. ProQuest. Web. 27 Nov. 2013.
O*net Online
"Section 4: Career/human Resource Development." Industrial and Commercial Training 27.5 (1995): 19. ProQuest. Web. 27 Nov. 2013.
Singh, Parbudyal. “Job analysis for a changing workplace”
Human Resource Management Review, Volume 18, Issue 2, June 2008, Pages 87-99
Parbudyal Singh

Thursday, November 7, 2013

Equal Employment Opportunity

In my blog I will be going further in depth when it comes to equal employment opportunity (EEO) in the workplace. In the United States basing an individual job application on race, gender, disability, age, and religion etc. It is highly illegal and could result in law suit settlements, fines etc. My main three key focus will be on sexual harassment, American disability, and age discrimination in the organization. Employers should base their decisions on the education and level of experience he might have when applying for a job within the company.
American Disability
            The American disability law was designed to keep employers from discriminating against workers with mental or physical disabilities. “The law mandates that employers reasonably accommodate Individuals with disabilities who are qualified to perform the job” (Crampton, Suzanne M., and John W. Hodge). For an individual who is disable the employer must make the necessity changes to the job or work environment that gives the individual an equal opportunity to perform their sufficiently. “It has been estimated that there are 43 million Americans with disabilities, or approximately one in six of us…fewer men and women with disabilities are employed compared to those without disabilities (only 34% of men and 33% of women with disabilities compared to 95% of men and 82% of women without disabilities), and those with disabilities who are employed tend to work fewer hours on average (approximately one-third less) than those without disabilities” (Crampton, Suzanne M., and John W. Hodge). The ADA is put into place for employers with 15 or more employees to discriminate against a qualified individual with a disability. “The law covers all employment practices (i.e., recruitment, pay, hiring, firing, promotion, job assignments, training, leaves of absence, benefits, layoffs, etc.)” (Crampton, Suzanne M., and John W. Hodge). Under the ADA, a person is defined disable if they have a physical or mental impairment that limits that person in some major life activities, who has a record with such an impairment or who is regarded as having such impairment. “Organizations aren't required to provide a reasonable accommodation…undue hardship means that an "accommodation would be unduly costly, extensive, substantial or disruptive, or would fundamentally alter the nature or operation of the business" (Crampton, Suzanne M., and John W. Hodge). The ADA offers general guidelines in determining when there is an undue hardship becomes unreasonable and will place undue hardship on an employer. Here are some facts that employees with disability faced when hired, reasonable accommodation, and discharge: “Thirteen percent of all reported ADA complaints were in the area of hiring. Eighty-two percent of the reported ADA complaints were filed based on what happened to the individual after hire. Reasonable accommodation accounted for 23 percent of the reported complaints to the EEOC and federal courts. Finally, discharge accounts for nearly 50 percent of all complaints filed with the EEOC and federal courts” (Crampton, Suzanne M., and John W. Hodge). Furthermore, the ADA is establish to protect and help individuals with disabilities from being discriminated against on the job. If more companies make themselves aware of the ADA laws and provide reasonable accommodation would decrease the number of suits filed in court.
Age discrimination
            The Age Discrimination in employment act prohibits discrimination in terms, conditions, or privileges of employment against all individuals forty years or older. “The original Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA) protected workers between the ages of 40 and 65 who worked in firms with 25 or more employees (Age, 1967). The 1978 ADEA Amendments extended coverage to people up to 70 years of age in the private sector and to other workers without maximum limit in most government positions (Age, 1978)” (Gene G-Y Shen, and H. Kleiner Brian). It is unfair that most employers discriminate against applicants based on their age, whether they are young or old. If they qualify for the position why not hire them to work for the company. Amongst the people who face age discrimination is the younger people who are looking for work. “From the unemployment rates…one may argue that the age group of 55 and older has the lowest number, 3.0%, and discrimination in hiring does not seem to apply to this group. Also, the age group of 16-19 has the highest unemployment rate of 16.4%” (Gene G-Y Shen, and H. Kleiner Brian). The reason why the younger age groups have higher unemployment is due to that fact that older workers stay unemployed longer than younger workers. Many organizations have high standards for hiring older workers because they feel they will be more reliable and stay with the company. “Older workers tend to be less absent, less likely to quit and more satisfied with their jobs than younger employees. Older workers also tend to have fewer accidents than younger employees. With such favorable attitudes about older workers, why are there so many early retirement incentive programs and a lack of interest in hiring older workers?” (Gene G-Y Shen, and H. Kleiner Brian).
Sexual Harassment
            Sexual harassment is a great concern in the work organization and occur in a variety of workplace relationship. No one based on their occupation or profession is immune to sexual harassment. “Sexual harassment is far more pervasive and less obvious than physical assault and includes verbal behaviour and other forms of sexual expression. Verbal harassment includes sexual innuendoes, comments, and sexual remarks; suggestive, obscene, or insulting sounds; implied or overt threats; and sexual propositions, invitations, or other pressure for sex” (Kim, Steve, and H. Kleiner Brian). Sexual harassment is a form of hostility and aggression. It is also an abuse of power when a boss use it for their advantage. “It is not done in jest or "good fun"; rather it is done to intimidate and hurt others. It also is an inappropriate and unacceptable way to control others through degradation and intimidation” (Kim, Steve, and H. Kleiner Brian). Everyone deserves to be treated with dignity and respect. Sexual harassment can have some negative damage on an individual both economically and psychological. “Psychological and physical consequences include depression, helplessness, decreased work or academic performance, withdrawal, devastating impacts on family, insomnia, chronic fatigue, nausea, and other physiological complaints. Economic consequences include loss of job and attendant financial benefits, promotion, important work assignments, ostracism, and stigma” (Kim, Steve, and H. Kleiner Brian). There are two types of sexual harassment, one is quid pro quo and the second one is hostile environment. Quid pro quo is defined: “the harasser has taken away job benefits (e.g., discharge or demotion) because sexual favors on the part of the employee were not forthcoming" and hostile environment is defined : "(1) she belongs to a protected group, (2) she was subject to unwelcome sexual harassment, (3) the harassment was based on sex, (4) the harassment affected a term, condition or privilege of employment, and (5) [the employer] knew or should have known of the harassment and failed to take proper remedial action" (Greenlaw, Paul S., and Robert D. Lee, Jr). In order for sexual harassment to stop, the person who is being harassed must know where to go to report such inappropriate conduct. “The employer should have a procedure for resolving sexual harassment complaints…encourage victims of harassment to come forward and should not require a victim to complain first to the offending supervisor…file an effective complaint or grievance process and taking immediate and appropriate action when an employee complains…be confidentiality as much as possible and provide effective remedies, including protection of victims and witnesses against retaliation” (Kim, Steve, and H. Kleiner Brian).
            Furthermore, by having the equal employment opportunity in place will reduce the amount of discrimination in the work place. Whether it be discrimination based on disability, sexual harassment and age. EEO is put in place for organization to make better improvements on the job force.

Work Citied
Crampton, Suzanne M., and John W. Hodge. "The ADA and disability accommodations." Public Personnel Management Spring 2003: 143+. Academic OneFile. Web. 7 Nov. 2013.
Gene G-Y Shen, and H. Kleiner Brian. "Age Discrimination in Hiring." Equal Opportunities International 20.8 (2001): 25-32. ProQuest. Web. 7 Nov. 2013
Greenlaw, Paul S., and Robert D. Lee, Jr. "The legal evolution of sexual harassment." Public Administration Review 55.4 (1995): 357-364. Academic OneFile. Web. 7 Nov. 2013.
Kim, Steve, and H. Kleiner Brian. "Sexual Harassment in the Workplace." Equal Opportunities International 18.2-4 (1999): 20-2. ProQuest. Web. 7 Nov. 2013.